Neurogenetic research using the Drosophila model has immensely expanded around the world. Likewise, scientists in South Korea have leveraged the advantages of Drosophila genetic tools to under- stand various neurobiological processes. In this special issue, we will overview the history of Drosophila neurogenetic research in South Korea that led to significant discoveries and notably implications. We will describe how Drosophila system was first introduced to elevate neural developmental studies in 1990s. Establishing Drosophila-related resources has been a key venture, which led to the generation of over 100,000 mutant lines and the launch of the K-Gut initiative with Korea Drosophila Research Center (KDRC). These resources have supported the pioneer studies in modeling human disease and under- standing genes and neural circuits that regulate animal behavior and physiology.