Vitellogenesis (yolk accumulation) begins upon eclosion and continues through the process of sexual maturation. Upon reaching sexual maturity, vitellogenesis is placed on hold until it is induced again by mating. However, the mechanisms that gate vitellogenesis in response to developmental and reproductive signals remain unclear. Here, we have identified the neu- ropeptide allatostatin-C (AstC)-producing neurons that gate both the initiation of vitello- genesis that occurs post-eclosion and its re-initiation post-mating. During sexual maturation, the AstC neurons receive excitatory inputs from Sex Peptide Abdominal Ganglion (SAG) neurons. In mature virgin females, high sustained activity of SAG neurons shuts off vitello- genesis via continuous activation of the AstC neurons. Upon mating, however, Sex Peptide inhibits SAG neurons, leading to deactivation of the AstC neurons. As a result, this permits both JH biosynthesis and the progression of vitellogenesis in mated females. Our work has uncovered a central neural circuit that gates the progression of oogenesis.