Males have finite resources to spend on reproduction. Thus, males rely on a ‘time invest- ment strategy’ to maximize their reproductive success. For example, male Drosophila mela- nogaster extends their mating duration when surrounded by conditions enriched with rivals. Here we report a different form of behavioral plasticity whereby male fruit flies exhibit a shortened duration of mating when they are sexually experienced; we refer to this plasticity as ‘shorter-mating-duration (SMD)’. SMD is a plastic behavior and requires sexually dimor- phic taste neurons. We identified several neurons in the male foreleg and midleg that express specific sugar and pheromone receptors. Using a cost-benefit model and behav- ioral experiments, we further show that SMD behavior exhibits adaptive behavioral plasticity in male flies. Thus, our study delineates the molecular and cellular basis of the sensory inputs required for SMD; this represents a plastic interval timing behavior that could serve as a model system to study how multisensory inputs converge to modify interval timing behavior for improved adaptation.